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Evaluation of translational research

Towards an alternative framework for the evaluation of online cheap viagra buy translational research

Jordi Molas-Gallart1, Pablo D’Este1, Óscar Llopis1 and Ismael Rafols1,2

1INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València, València,

2SPRU, Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton

Working paper



Mapping the Dynamics of Emergent Technologies (MDET)

Project description

The MDET project aims to deepen our understanding of how new technologies emerge. Technologies are developed in distributed epistemic networks that align and misalign to varying degrees. In the case of emergent fields, desirable technological developments are often hindered as a result of this lack of alignment. Hence there is cialis no prescription canada a role for public policy for supporting the coordination of viagra online mastercard accepted the networks.

The research combines quantitative methods for analysing social and cognitive networks using publication data, qualitative methods to capture institutional developments and  novel mixed qualitative-quantitative approaches to investigate the pfizer viagra 50 mg online visions, values and shared expectations of the researchers.

MDET is a joint project by SPRU (University of Sussex), ASCOR (University of Amsterdam), and IFRIS (University of Paris-Est), funded by the ESRC and the ANR under the Open Research Area call.








Research Team

Michael Hopkins (PI)                       Loet Leydesdorff (Univ. of Amsterdam)                       Paul Nightingale
Ismael Rafols (former PI)                       Tommaso Ciarli
                      Andy Stirling  
                        Daniele Rotolo


Project Outputs

Journal articles

Book chapters

      • Cattani G, Rotolo D (2013) An exploratory study of the role of publishing inventors in nanotechnology. In Understanding the Relationship between Networks and TechnologyCreativity and Innovation Technology, Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Competitive Strategy 13Aharonson B., Stettner U., Amburgey T.L., Ellis S., and Drori I (eds), Emerald.

Conference proceedings

General presentations

      • Rotolo D, Rafols I, Hopkins MM, Leydesdorff L (2013) Scientometric mapping for tentative governance of emerging technologies. Data Science, Tech Mining and Innovation, Manchester (UK), 6 November 2013.
      • Ciarli T, Rafols I (2013) The Trajectory of bestellen levitra Rice Seed Technology: Exploring CAB Direct. 3rd Global TechMining Conference Georgia Tech, Atlanta (US), 25 September 2013.
      • Rotolo D, Rafols I, Hopkins MM, Leydesdorff L (2013) Mapping the de facto governance in the case of emerging science and technologies. Atlanta Conference, Atlanta (US), 25-28 September 2013.
      • Rafols I, Ciarli T, Van Zwanenberg P, Stirling A (2012) Towards indicators for opening up S&T policy. The Governance of a Complex World Conference, Nice (France), November 2012.
      • Rotolo D, Hopkins MM, Rafols I (2012) Knowledge dynamics in the emergence of a new technology: A multi-perspective analysis on the case of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) molecular diagnostic tests. EASST/4S Joint Conference, Copenhagen (Denmark), 17-21 September 2012.
      • Leydesdorff L, Rotolo D, Rafols I (2012) Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed. EASST/4S Joint Conference, Copenhagen (Denmark), 17-21 September 2012.
      • Ciarli T, Rafols I, Rotolo D (2012) The trajectory is on the map, but we miss the pathways. EASST/4S Joint Conference, Copenhagen (Denmark), 17-21 September 2012
      • Hopkins MM (2012) The emergence of TPMT testing (2012). EASST/4S Joint Conference, Copenhagen (Denmark), 17-21 September 2012
      • Cattani G, Rotolo D, Messeni Petruzzelli A (2012) Bridging science and technology: The connecting role of author-inventors. Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston (USA), 3-7 August 2012.
      • Hopkins MM (2012) The mapping the emergence of genetic testing technologies. Workshop on personalised medicine at CESaGEN.
      • Ciarli T, Rafols I, Rotolo D (2012) The trajectory is on the map, but we miss the pathways. Frontier Research in Economic and Social History (FRESH) Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa (Italy), 19 April 2012
      • Rafols I, Hopkins MM, Leydesdorff L (2011) Diffusion and network formation of emerging technologies: The case of RNA interference. SNET (Society for the study of Nanoscience and Emergence Technologies) Conference, Phoenix, November 2011.
      • Rafols, I (2011) Opening-up versus closing down using bibliometric tools. University of Tokyo, Innovation Policy Research Center (invited by Yuya Kajikawa), Tokyo (Japan), October 2011.



Materials (only for project members): 




Big Pharma, Little Science?

Big Pharma, Little Science? A bibliometric perspective on big pharma’s R&D decline

Technology Forecasting and Social Change (online)

Nominated to Best Paper Award in the 2012 DRUID Conference

Ismael Rafols, Michael M. Hopkins, Jarno Hoekman,Josh Siepel, Alice O'Hare, Antonio Perianes-Rodríguez and Paul Nightingale


There is a widespread perception that pharmaceutical R&D is facing a productivity crisis characterised by stagnation in the numbers of new drug approvals in the face of increasing R&D costs. This study explores pharmaceutical R&D dynamics by examining the cialis 20mg tablets publication activities of all R&D laboratories of the major European and viagra pharmacy US pharmaceutical firms during the period 1995-2009. The empirical findings present an industry in transformation. In the first place, we observe a decline of the best choice the total number of publications by large firms. Second, we show a relative increase of their external collaborations suggesting a tendency to usa generic levitra outsource, and a diversification of the disciplinary base, in particular towards computation, health services and more clinical approaches. Also evident is a more pronounced decline in publications by both R&D laboratories located in Europe and by firms with European headquarters. Finally, while publications by big pharma in emerging economies sharply increase, they remain extremely low compared with those in developed countries. In summary, the trend in this transformation is one of a gradual decrease in internal research efforts and increasing reliance on external research. These empirical insights support the view that large pharmaceutical firms are increasingly becoming ‘networks integrators’ rather than the prime locus of drug discovery.

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